Chief Rocky Boy
Rocky Boy's Tribes

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The October 17, 1855 Treaty

This is a detailed history timeline of chief Rocky Boy. Historians always write that chief Rocky Boy was born in Wisconsin or back east. However, there are two accounts which tell of chief Rocky Boy being born in Montana. One tells of him being born somewhere between Anaconda and Butte, while the other tells of him being born north of Helena. His fathers name was Na-wa-swa-taam. His mother was a Rocky Ojibwa. In Ojibway, they named this nation or totem of Ojibway's, the Assiniboine or as the Ojibway's correctly pronounced it, Assini-bwan. The "assini" means Rocky in Ojibway. The "bwan" means Ojibwa yet without the "oji" being used. There are two plurals in Ojibwa. An "n" used for inanimate and a "g" used for animate or objects made by humans. By adding the "n" to "bwa" it makes it a plural. He was born in either 1851 or 1852. However, he may have been a few years older. When the October 17, 1855 Treaty was signed, which created Blackfeet Reservation, he was not even 10 years old. Later, when chief Rocky Boy was elected grand chief of the Indian Nations who continued to honor treaties, he also continued to honor those treaties. Chief Little Shells refusual to cede land deals with the southern part of the original Blackfeet Reservation in Montana and Wyoming. It has the numbers 398 and 399 on Indian land cession maps. That is the Reservation all the commotion is about. Chief Rocky Boy knew about it as did Joseph Paul and Joseph Dussome. Neither of the two land areas were ceded. Land area area with the number 398 is the most obvious use of deceit by the United States. And land area 399 is another that the United States resorted to using deceit. You have to read the October 17, 1855 Treaty to find out how land area 399 was ceded. It does not show up in the July 5, 1873 Treaty Text which means it was not ceded. And the March 3, 1891 Treaty proves chief Rocky Boy led that Reservation. Below is a photo of chief Rocky Boy and his family near Browning, Montana. I don't know when the photo was taken. Possibly 1909 or 1910. However, it may have been taken in the 1890s.

The 1860-1882 Mulland Road War

Whites historians are using deception to fool you. In 1849, a Metis or mixed blood named Johnny Grant, settled in what are now Beaverhead and Deer Lodge Counties, Montana. They claim people from the Red River Colony located in southern Manitoba, between Portage la Prairie and Winnipeg and that part of Red River between Winnipeg and Grand Forks, North Dakota, migrated to Beaverhead and Deer Lodge Counties, to colonize those locations. That is a lie. Red River Colony was granted to Eskimos and whites after they invaded southern Manitoba during the War of 1812. Ojibway leaders granted them the small colony after signing the 1817 Selkirk Treaty. Ojibway Soldiers subjugated the Eskimos and whites of Red River Colony. They allowed them some degree of autonomy however. Grant was a prisoner of the Ojibway's. An Ojibway village was located in Deer Lodge Valley later named Garrison by the whites. Ojibway traders used their carts to conduct a trade among themselves between Fort Hall, Idaho (or possibly northern Utah) up to near Fort Edmonton which was guarded by the Eskimo allies of the whites. Those Eskimos came down from the MacKenzie River Delta region which was the most important location the whites used to bring Eskimos to North America to fight the Ojibway's.

After the United States conspired with the Eskimos and whites from that part of Red River Colony located along the Red River in Minnesota and North Dakota, from the Canada border to Grand Forks, North Dakota, to form an alliance, many of the Eskimos and whites forced their way to the location where St. Anthony Falls is which is near downtown Minneapolis. They commenced building Fort St. Anthony in 1820. In 1825, they finished construction of the fort and renamed it Fort Snelling. Afterwards, more Eskimos and whites from Red River Colony settled at Fort Snelling. The Ojibway-Dakota War intensified. It should be known as the Ojibway-Eskimo and white War. Johnny Grant may have had connections to Fort Snelling or was a spy who was stationed at Fort Snelling and was sent to Montana. However, they did not establish a colony in Montana in 1849.

According to their (white historians) accounts, Henry A. Kennerly was sent to Montana before the October 17, 1855 Treaty signings. He went up to Alberta then back to Montana. He reached the St. Mary Lake region or what is now Babb, Montana and found a village of Ojibway's there. Among them was a con artist named Father LaCombe. He was allowed to try and convert Indians to his tricks. Remember these locations because chief Rocky Boy has direct links to them. In no way did Ojibway leaders allow any whites, Eskimos or mixed bloods from Red River Colony, to colonize locations in Montana. They were prisoners of the Ojibway's. Either that or there was a Red River in Montana they are covering-up. After Ojibway leaders allowed white Christian Missionaries to try and convert Indians to their religions, those Indians who converted were usually given a baptismal name.

In 1860, American settlers and soldiers invaded what is now Montana. They did so by using both an east route and a southwest route. From the east, they used the location where Missouri River enters Montana which was a dangerous location. From the southwest, they came up from southeast Idaho. At that time, chief Big Bear was probably living in Idaho. Of course, what is now St. Ignatius and Stevensville, Montana (it's located in Bitterroot Valley) were established in the 1840s yet were missions for converting Indians to white religions. American Soldiers and civilians snuck their way into southwest Montana to search for gold and silver which they found. Mining camps were established which became towns including Deer Lodge (1860) which was an ancient Ojibway settlement location (Johnny Grant fled the Ojibway village where Garrison is now in 1861 and helped whites establish Deer Lodge), Bannack (1862), Gold Creek (1862) camp which was white, Alder Gulch (1863), Laurin (1863), Nevada City (1863), Virginia City (1863), Anaconda (1864), Bozeman (1864), Butte (1864), Diamond City (1864), Helena (1864), Red Bluff (1864) Rimini (1864) and the Lower and Upper Flint Creek Valleys camps and others.

Excepting Deer Lodge, the other camps needed supplies. It took much longer for supplies to reach the mining camps in southwest Montana. An agreement was reached between Ojibway leaders and the United States, to allow whites to use an ancient Ojibway Road the whites later named Mullan Road. Ojibway leaders became enraged after finding out the United States used the road to send in supplies to the mining camps in southwest Montana. They did so by using teamsters in teams of 100 to 200 teamsters, to use Mullan Road to send supplies to southwest Montana. It was very dangerous, especially for Ojibway Soldiers who had to combat the teamsters who were armed with repeating rifles and revolvers, while they yet relied heavily on bows and arrows. Steamboats were used by the Americans to send supplies to where Fort Buford was established then to Fort Benton. It was not always successful.

The mountain valley's in southwest Montana, had much smaller Indian populations compared to the Indian population on the plains of northern Montana and eastern Montana. Only a few thousand Indians lived in each of the larger mountain valleys in southwest Montana in those times. Helena Valley had a small Indian population. Deer Lodge Valley also had a small Indian population. The Flint Creek Valley's also had small Indian populations. Beaverhead Valley possibly had the second largest Indian population since it is a very large mountain valley. Bannack was established in the mountains on Beaverhead Valley's west, while Virginia City was established in the mountains on Beaverhead Valleys east. Big Hole Basin also had a larger Indian population since it was a large basin or valley. Gallatin Valley had the largest Indian population. The United States established Fort Ellis in 1867 as a result of intensified war between the Ojibway Nation and United States. After the Powder River (aka Sun River Stampede) Expedition of late 1865 and early 1866, the Mullan Road War intensified dramatically.

Fort Ellis was established to protect the white invaders living in southwest Montana. Helena became their most important location. It was not far from the Great Falls region which had a much larger Indian population. In fact, in the 1860s, north central Montana possibly had an Indian population in the 100,000s. What allowed the region to support a large Indian population was the buffalo. American leaders did not care for southwest Montana in those times. They wanted farm land. North central Montana from Chinook to Cut Bank, and from Lewistown to Choteau, had the most abundant farm land in Montana. Southeast Montana was considered far less valuable when compared to north central Montana. It has far less farm land. Southwest Montana was considered more valuable because of gold and silver. Northeast Montana was second to north central Montana. Most of the fighting along Mullan Road was fought between Fort Benton and Helena. They diverted the ancient Ojibway Road well north of Great Falls to avoid the very large Ojibway population living there. Mullan Road was some 15 or so miles north of Great Falls, near large lakes in that region. It went west then southwest to near Sun River, Montana. During the Sun River Stampede of 1865-1866, Camp Reynolds was established. That's why they launched the Powder River Expedition (aka Sun River Stampede) in late 1865. They established Camp Reynolds in 1866 then converted it to a fort in 1867. They named the fort Fort Shaw. Also in 1866, during the Sun River Stampede, the United States established Camp Cook to convert Fort Benton to a military fort. Ojibway Soldiers were often sent to the mountain valley's in southwest Montana to attack the white invaders. However, as mentioned, most of the fighting happened between Fort Benton and Helena. Indian casualties were extremely heavy. Whites had to travel in large groups to avoid being wiped out.

1876-1877: The Mullan Road War Intensifies

Chief Rocky Boy was apparently related in some way to chief Big Bear. Chief Rocky Boy was married to one of chief Big Bears sisters. Her name was Ma-way-yi-ta-gan. Could be an indication chief Rocky Boy was closer to chief Big Bears age. Chief Big Bear was born around 1825. One of chief Big Bears sons was chief Rocky Boy's nephew. He was chief Little Bear or in Ojibway, Ma-kos. Though Ma-kos was chief Big Bears son and chief Rocky Boy was a couple of years older than Ma-kos, Rocky Boy held advantage because he was a bit older and also the uncle of Ma-kos. During the Mullan Road War, Ojibway leaders followed prophecy and commenced an exodus west than north to the Cypress Hills of Alberta and Saskatchewan. That happened in 1876-1877. Chief Rocky Boy was among the Nez Perce Ojibway's who fled north to the Cypress Hills in 1876-1877. He was near 30 years old at that time. However, he may have been closer to 40 years old or even 50. During that time, chief Big Bear was the principle leader of the Montana Ojibway refugees. His subjects requested for Reserves near Fort Pitt in Saskatchewan and Alberta. He needed to sign Treaty 6 yet refused.

Chief Big Bear did not sign Treaty 6 until December of 1882. When he signed Treaty 6 in December of 1882, it offically ended the long Mullan Road War. He continued to live in the Cypress Hills region and northern Montana. Surprisingly, Ma-kos signed Treaty 6 on his own well before his father chief Big Bear did. That could indicate he settled near Fort Pitt in the late 1870s and was peaceful, as he told whites in Lewistown, Montana in late 1913. Ma-kos said he sided with the whites during the war in Montana in 1876-1877. Little Bear also requested from the United States to help fight the Japanese allies of the whites. That was awkward to Americans because the Japanese were their allies and they were not at war with Japan. He also told them he did not care for chief Rocky Boy who was his uncle.

After chief Big Bear signed Treaty 6 in late 1882, he gathered his subjects and relocated about 300 miles to the north where the Cold Lake First Nations are located. They include Onion Lake, Kehewin, Frog Lake, Cold Lake, Ministikwan and Makwa Sahgaiehcan Reserves which are located in Alberta and Saskatchewan. He wanted a large Reserve in that location yet Canada refused. In 1885, the Northwest Rebellion was fought. Chief Big Bear did not want to get involved in that conflict. His son Ma-kos obviously did not want to get involved. After all, he signed Treaty 6 first and told whites he sided with the whites. After the Northwest Rebellion, there was a chief Little Bear who was executed for his role in that 1885 conflict. He obviously was not chief Big Bears son. However, white historians could be covering it up.

Chief Rocky Boy Returns To Montana

He probably fled back to Montana in June of 1885. Chief Rocky Boy and a few of his followers, headed southwest to southwestern Alberta then entered the United States where Babb, Montana is located. He would move to Jocko Reservation or Jocko Valley (where Arlee, Montana is) soon after returning to his native Montana. Chief Ma-kos did not flee back to Montana if he signed Treaty 6 and told whites he sided with them. Ma-kos was the complete opposite of chief Rocky Boy.

Not all Montana Ojibway's fled west or to Canada in 1876-1877. In fact, most probably stayed in Montana. My great Grandfather Elzear Paul, was living near Augusta, Montana in the late 1870s. He was among 100s of Ojibway's who lived south of Augusta and at the South Fork of Sun River about 5 miles southwest of what is now Gibson Reservoir, well in the mountains. They were living in locations that offered them protection from the whites. Chief Rocky Boy eventually became the leader of the Montana Ojibway's who continued to honor the Treaty that created their Reservation. The United States broke that treaty in 1876-1877, when they attacked the Montana Ojibways unprovoked.

The 1895-1896 Exodus and Deportations

From the Babb and Arlee regions, chief Rocky Boy's whereabouts are not correctly known. In fact, we don't hear anything from chief Rocky Boy until 1901. Chief Rocky Boy was possibly arrested and Deported during the 1895-1896 Deportations out of north central Montana, especially around Great Falls. It was no small Relocation. It involved 1,000s of Ojibway's and their allies. Most were forced on to train boxcars and Relocated. However, it is known that the Ojibways first commenced an exodus. The whites were warning them they were going to Relocate them. Chief Little Bear was back east doing wild west shows when these events happened. New Reservations were set aside for chief Rocky Boys subjects during those times. One was San Carlos Reservation in Arizona. Another was the western part of Blackfeet Reservation. The Blackfeet Reservation created on May 1, 1888. Chief Rocky Boy was possibly Relocated to Blackfeet Reservation in the late summer of 1896. It was reported in the press in August of 1896, that 500 settlers were waiting to move to Blackfeet Reservation. Those 500 settlers were Ojibway's who were forced to Relocate in June and July of 1896, from the Great Falls, Montana region. His son Smallboy (Apitchitchiw) who later became a chief of that portion of Montana Reserve in Alberta known as Ermineskin, was born on November 7, 1898 supposedly at the Piegan Reserve in Alberta. However, Blackfeet Reservation was also known as Piegan Reservation during those times. So chief Rocky Boy was probably living at Blackfeet Reservation in 1898. In 1901 that changed. Many were forced to Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan, especially to the Treaty 8 land area during the 1895-1896 Deportations. However, many returned to their native Montana.


Though i wrote first about the 1895-1896 Exodus and Deportations, what transpired at Crow Reservation in 1890 obviously involved chief Rocky Boy. If you read the 1901 article about chief Rocky Boy requesting from judge McClernan for passports and what he told him, you'll probably agree. However, be cautious because there was another Crow Reservation within the Blackfeet Reservation which has the land area number 557 on Indian land cession maps. Below is a map of the Judith Basin Reservation. It was located in the far eastern end of the Reservation. It's located within the land area with the number 399. The Ojibway's never ceded the land areas of the original Blackfeet Reservation with the numbers 398 and 399. Chief Rocky Boy never surrendered nor signed treaty ceding Reservations. Below is an excerpt from a webpage about what a supposed chief Plenty Coups told the American negotiators:

Chief Plenty Coups Responded, "if you white men put in all your money to buy that land, you would not pay all that it is worth. I don't want to have bad feelings against Indians and whites, but i want my country to remain. Your President buys and buys from me and this time i won't do it. Indians living in the east end of the Reservation and those from around the Little Bighorn River wanted the money and favored accepting the money. Referring to them, Plenty Coups said, "in my country (he was referring to the west end of the Reservation) you can't find four young men you have had in prison. My people never pointed their guns towards the whites. These people on the Little Bighorn have always had trouble amongst themselves. Mine do not. I don't want my people to get mixed up in such a crowd as this. The commissioners had better go home." That ended the negotiations about ceding more land in 1890. It wasn't chief Plenty Coups. It was chief Rocky Boy. He continued to refuse to cede land. Almost identical to that of chief Little Shells ordeal. They supposedly ceded the land with the March 3, 1891 Treaty which is fraudulent. It was 8 years later when the Americans returned to chief Plenty Coups requesting for more land. They did so because what transpired in 1890-1891 didn't happen. Chief Rocky Boy told them No. Chief Rocky Boy told them the United States would not pay the correct amount of money for the land. He also told them his people never instigated trouble against the whites. We will now find out about what happened after 1898.


Chief Rocky Boy was contacted by Ojibway leader chief Day Child from Crow Reservation. In 1898, the United States forced the Ojibway's from Crow Reservation, to cede a large area of their Reservation. Thus, for chief Day Child's reason for contacting chief Rocky Boy. After chief Day Child was arrested for hunting then released from jail, he contacted chief Rocky Boy. I'm not certain yet i suspect Crow Reservation was a part of the original Blackfeet Reservation. That's because of a portion of Crow Reservation adjacent to the original Blackfeet Reservation. Below is a map of the Crow Reservation from 1890. It has the number 635. However, the area with the number 619 is the white deception. It is a land area that's almost entirely mountainous. Chief Rocky Boy knew from instinct to have land considered unappealing to whites, set aside to be Reservations. So the land area with the number 619 was yet a part of Crow Reservation in 1890. Below is an excerpt from a book about this event:

Chippewas from Billings faced similar problems, and they added to the efforts to receive lands of their own in Montana. Sometime during the early 1900s, Chief Day Child, a prominent Chippewa leader in the state, was arrested and sentenced to thirty days in jail for shooting and killing an antelope. After his release, he immediately contacted Rocky Boy and told him of his troubles and of the need for them to secure lands of their own. Chief Day Child's son Joe Day Child explained further:

He pointed out to Rocky Boy that things would be harder for the children in the future. Rocky Boy agreed. He said to Day Child, I'll be Glad to do something. After this the two people, Day Child and Rocky Boy, invited all the Chippewa-Cree there to come to one place. Then they told them what they were thinking. They told the people what they wanted to do. They wanted to get a piece of land for their own. They moved from there and went to Anaconda. Then they sent somebody to talk with the white people. Day Child was there at the meeting. He asked for land. It seemed like the way the man talked that there was a good chance they would get some land. That's the way it sounds. It was from this time of talking that the people were interested. They started to pull together.

Chief Rocky Boy led them to the Ojibway Reservation located in southwest Montana (the southern part of the original Blackfeet Reservation) which Sun River is the northern boundary. We know when this event happened. It happened in 1901. In the same book, it is written that the Cree (they are really Ojibway) were forced off Crow Reservation. It is no coincidence that the two events are very similar. In fact, they are both the same event. Below is that excerpt from the same book:

At the turn of the century, Crees themselves were overwhelmingly resistant to forced deportation. In 1901, a group that had been encamped on the Crow Reservation was forced to leave by reservation officials. "One day two Indian police came to the Cree camp and told us we had to move off the reservation, because we did not belong there," recalled George Watson. The group sought respite in Billings, but was soon compelled northward. Elated, the Billings press reported that the group had left with a vow to move northward . . . until they reach Canada. Big Thunder Storm, a leader of the Billing group, stated, if the people of Montana did not want them they would go.

As you can clearly see, both events are in fact the same event. Billings is the center of the cover-up. Remember that. Billings was adjacent to Crow Reservation in those times. That part of Crow Reservation illegally ceded on March 3, 1891. There are two accounts about the land cessions. Remember there were two land cessions mentioned according to historians. The first one is the western part or land west of Little Bighorn River to the confluence of Bighorn River and Little Bighorn River which is near Hardin, Montana, while the other deals with the northern part of Crow Reservation. Since the western part of Crow Reservation had an abundance of farmland, it was the western part of Crow Reservation that was ceded including the land north and west of the confluence of the Bighorn and Little Bighorn River. Use google earth to find out how mountainous the northern part of Crow Reservation, east of Bighorn River is. In 1904, the land cession of the western part of Crow Reservation was ratified by the American government. It was fraudulent.

American policy during those times was to force Indians off of ceded Reservation lands. They had to leave, accept land allotments or jail time. If you know about the tv series Little House on the Prairie, you then know Laura Ingalls family was living on the Osage Reservation of Kansas. It was eradicated in 1870 or 1871. The Indians including Ingalls family, had to leave so white settlers could take their land. One of Ingalls parents was Indian or a mixed blood. All of them were extremely enraged after having their land stolen and were forced to leave.

They made mention of land south of Lodge Grass to north of the confluence of the Bighorn and Little Bighorn Rivers and also that the southern part of the Reservation would not be ceded. We know where the land supposedly left to the Crow and Cheyenne is. Below is a map of the Crow Reservation after 1904. The United States wanted the western portion and northern portion. However, chief Rocky Boy refused to sign treaty which means what transpired was fraudulent. Americans used chief Planty Coups to use fraud.

Chief Plenty Coups was very different in 1890-1891, before negotiating about ceding more Reservation land, when the United States came wanting to break treaty. He refused to cede that part of Crow Reservation west of Pryor Creek which extended a few miles west of Big Timber, Montana. He didn't have authority to do so. In 1898, chief Plenty Coups was more interested in the agreements from the March 3, 1891 Treaty being fulfilled, before negotiating about ceding more Reservation land. In 1890, chief Plenty Coups did not have the full support of the Crow People (the Chippewa's who lived throughout the land area of the western Crow Reservation the United States wanted in 1890) which means he was not a major leader in 1890. By 1898, he had the full support of the Crow People. Supposedly the American negotiators were surprised by the demeanor of the Crow People. They left the negotiations to tell their superiors their suprising information. They returned to Crow Reservation in early 1899 with money. On August 8, 1899 they held negotiations with Crow leaders. They told them they wanted to buy Reservation land south of Lodge Grass and to the north of the meeting of the Little Bighorn and Bighorn Rivers. Chief Plenty Coups told them "after the back payments are made" we will come back and we will talk to you about buying this land.

He was actually telling them he agreed to cede the land the United States wanted in 1890. That land is located a few miles east of Billings where the confluence of the Yellowstone River and Pryor Creek is and extends southwest to the present southwestern boundary of Crow Reservation. It then extends east to Bighorn River then south to the Wyoming border. Then it extends west to a location on the Montana/Wyoming border about 15 miles southeast of Red Lodge, Montana. Then it extends 18 or so miles straight north then 48 or so miles directly west. It then extends 38 or so miles directly north to a location a few miles west of Big Timber. It then follows Yellowstone River to the confluence of the Yellowstone River and Pryor Creek which is adjacent to Huntley, Montana and 11 miles northeast of Billings. What transpired was fraudulent. Chief Plenty Coups did not have authority to act on behalf of the Ojibway People. He asked for money on several occasions. He told the American negotiators he wanted back payments from 1890 which means the March 3, 1891 Treaty is fraudulent or didn't happen. Chief Plenty Coups was now leader of Crow Reservation. Chief Day Child and chief Rocky Boy knew what was going on. They knew if they reached an illegal settlement without their permission, they would have to leave. Chief Plenty Coups was lucky he wasn't killed for his betrayal. Not only did the United States illegally get the western part of Crow Reservation, they also got the land west of Little Bighorn River to the Yellowstone River or the northern portion of Crow Reservation. Remember the land area with the number 619? It was involved in the transcations between chief Plenty Coups and the United States. Chief Plenty Coups was probably paid $100,000s if not more than $1,000,000 for his deceit or betrayal.


Both chief Rocky Boy and chief Day Child, gathered up 1,000s of their subjects and made the trek to the region south of Anaconda and Butte, around 1901. Chief Big Thunder Storm led 100s of Ojibway's to Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation (aka Rocky Boy's Reservation) where chief Little Bear was leader. Chief Rocky Boy was not the peaceful leader you think he was. He was probably one of the principle Montana Ojibway leaders of the 1890s, who robbed banks and trains. They did so to raise money up to move to South America. Chief Rocky Boy was defiant and shrewd. He was the principle leader of the Montana Ojibways who lived in their own villages and followed prophecy and honored treaties. By 1901, the Montana press had no choice but to alert the public about chief Rocky Boy. They did so in a sneaky manner. They reported that chief Rocky Boy went before Judge McClernan requesting for permission to sail or navigate to Idaho and for passports. He needed the passports to enter other countries.

After they reached the Anaconda and Butte region, American leaders had to do something because the Ojibway's commenced to establish villages throughout that area. It was chief Rocky Boy's brother chief Crazy Boy, who was first mentioned in the press in 1901. That was on Monday June 17, 1901. He was living in an Ojibway village about 12 miles north of Anaconda. There was another Ojibway village about 3 miles south of chief Crazy Boy's village. Chief Rocky Boy was living in one of the Ojibway villages south of Anaconda and Butte. However, the Ojibways had been living in that location for centuries. Chief Rocky Boy was mentioned in the press shortly after his brother was. Below is an excerpt from the Thursday July 11, 1901 Kalispell Bee:

The Red Men Wanted Sailing Order to

Nine Chippewa Indians, headed by Chief Tony Man, called on Judge Me- Clernan today and asked for something in writing that would entitle them to enter the state of Idaho without fighting their way. Chief Toney Man, whose name was Rocky Boy before he became the boss of the party, acted as spokesman. He led the red men into the room and by a series of gesticulations gave the judge to understand that his followers were not after the scalp of any one or would they attempt to prove that the vein of the garbage dump apexed within the lines of their camp. He wanted to taik Injun to the judge, but the judge told him he was not a savage.

In his own way he gave the court to understand that the other Indians with whom his party had been browsing were a lot of dirty scrubs, whose ambition soared no higher than the accumulation of a jag or the contents of a swill barrel In an alley. He and his braves wanted to tear themselves away from them, he said, and go to a land where the picking was alleged to be better and there were not so many to do the picking.

The judge gave Rocky Boy a passport for himself and his followers, and the features of the party relaxed until they resembled the absence of a slice from nine watermelons. Then with an exclamation of "him heap big man” they drew their blankets about them and faded.—Inter-Mountain.

American leaders knew about chief Rocky Boy and wanted the Ojibway migration to South America stopped and the Ojibway's out of Montana. Chief Rocky Boy commenced his plans for moving to South America after the 1890 negotiations. It's likely several thousand of chief Rocky Boy's subjects reached South America, between 1890 and 1901. In 1901, they commenced to negotiate with chief Rocky Boy. In early 1902, with help from Anaconda lawyer John W. James, chief Rocky Boy or chief Papawee, sent a letter to President Roosevelt supposedly requesting for Reservations. Chief Rocky Boy never signed treaty ceding that Reservation. He agreed to allow certain subjects of his to Relocate to new Reservations. He had a dispute with chief Papawee (he may have been chief Lucky Man if he actually lived longer than thought) which brought on the Relocations. His supposed request for new Reservations was granted. His request was not denied. President Roosevelt wanted the Ojibway's under chief Rocky Boys rule, relocated to existing Reservations. He did so by adding land to existing Reservations for chief Rocky Boy's subjects. That land was usually wooded land or forested areas, desert land and swamp land. Bluntly, worthless land. It would take many years for the relocations to happen. And there were many relocations. Most of chief Rocky Boy's subjects were probably relocated to Canada. Below is an excerpt from the Tuesday March 11, 1902 Butte Inter Mountain about chief Rocky Boy's fued with chief Papawee:

Because He Wants the Government to
Allot Them Land to Settle Upon
-Mutinous Red Skins
Told to Go.
(Special to Inter Mountain.)

Anaconda, March 11.-There is mutiny In the Chippewa Indian camp, east of town, and indications are that Chief Rocky Boy, whose word has been law among the members of the tribe in the past. Is likely to lose his power over at least a part of his band.

Had a Rough House.
Reports received in Anaconda are to the effect that old man Rocky Boy had a rough house of it a day or two ago, and that the situation became so aggravated that the chief informed his unruly followers, headed by an Indian known as Pa-Pa-Wee, that unless they forthwith stopped creating discord in the tribe they could pack up their tepees and move on.

Rocky Boy's Progressiveness.

It is reported that the trouble came about in this manner: The tribe is an itinerant lot, at least they have been in the past; being without a reservation to go to, they have drifted about from place to place.

Rocky loy has become tired of this mode of living, and sent forth the edict that as soon as the "Big Father" in Washington gave the1m some land they would settle flown ul.o.t it and begin to live more as white folks do.

He explained to the tribe that every year conditions were getting harder for them; the encroachment of civilization has cut off their hunting grounds and very little game could be had any

Their blankets, 11ith their bright streaks of color, were getting fewer; their herd of ponies waa fast becomuI:g diminished: in fact. the tribe teas gradually getting more and 33ore lovcltystricken.

Applied for Land.

The chief engaged the Sympathy of an Anaconda attorney recently and that gentleman made application to the government for an allotment of land for these Indians.

The matter is now pending, with the prospect of favorable action.

A letter came a few days ago bringing encouragemnt to Rocky Boy.

He promptly summoned the band to- gether and gave out the news.

Pa-Pa-Wee Talks.

Pa-Pa- Wee and several others who were in sympathy with him entered strenuous objections to proceeding further in an effort to get land. Pa-Pa- Wee declared that some of the band did not want to settle down and live upon land like the 'pale face." On the con trary, they wanted to continue a roving life and drift about from place to place just as they had in the past.

Were Told to 'Get Out.

It was at this point that Rocky Boy told those opposing him to go ahead and drift for themselves. But here another obstacle presented itself.

Rocky Boy would not permit them to take away any ponies or polished horns, sq they still remain in camp, but their tepees are pitched off some distance from those of Rocky Boy and those loyal to him.

Trying to decipher what actually happened during their civil strife is difficult. Chief Rocky Boy and chief Papawee had just arrived to the Blackfeet Reservation. Remember, it was not ceded. That be the land areas with the numbers 398 and 399 on Indian land cession maps. Chief Papawee was possibly living there long before chief Rocky Boy showed up in 1901. Chief Rocky Boy knew the Reservation was intact. He was defiant. Papawee represented an opposition to honoring treaty. He may have sent the letter to President Roosevelt. What followed was another move on chief Rocky Boys part. He returned north. More about that shortly. Deciphering this information is tricky yet not at all impossible. Relocations did follow.

Land additions to Navajo Reservation from 1900 to 1934, were for Chief Rocky Boys subjects. Land additons to Papago Reservation commenced in a sneaky way in 1902. They continued up to 1916 there. In fact, Papago leaders filed a land claim lawsuit claiming land from east of Papago Reservation, to near Yuma, Arizona. In 1902, Papago Reservation was a small Reservation a few miles southwest of Tucson. The mountains north, east and south of Tucson to the Mexican border, was added to Papago Reservation. Gila River from near Yuma, Arizona to Gila River Reservation, was added to Papago Reservation. The western and southwestern boundary are the Tinajas Altas Mountains and Gila Mountain Range, to the Mexican border. The 1968 Papago land claim lawsuit is similar to the infamous 10¢ an Acre Treaty land claim lawsuit. We know the Ojibways were granted that land area as a Reservation. There is a small Kickapoo Ojibway population living just east of Papago Reservation. They changed the name of Papago Reservation to St. Xavier Reservation. Then they named the land additions Papago Reservation. It's a vast Reservation.

Many of chief Rocky Boy's subjects were also relocated to Florida. Indian Reservations in Florida were established around 1907. By 1913, there were 18 Indian Reservations in Florida. South Florida was ideal land to relocate chief Rocky Boy's subjects to. South Florida is very swampy or undesirable land. South Louisiana was another location chief Rocky Boy's subjects were relocated to. South Louisiana is similar to south Florida. Southern Louisiana is very swampy or undesirable land.

Chief Rocky Boy never surrendered. He never signed treaty. His shrewdness won admiration from both Indians and whites. He clinged to his Ojibway Tribal Identity. That is why Montana has an Ojibway Reservation (they are doing their very best to claim Rocky Boy's Reservation as being a Cree Reservation) and two non Federally Recognized Ojibway groups. One is the Swan Creek and Black River Chippewa's (aka the Cheyenne and Nez Perce) and the bogus Little Shell Tribe. The Rocky Boy Tribe of Chippewa Indians is the real Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana. Joseph Dussome was a spy. He violated chief Rocky Boy's subjects. However, he was somewhat helpful. Chief Rocky Boy may have actually lived to the 1920s.


In 1902, it was reported in the press that chief Rocky Boys subjects were granted land somewhere in this vast country. An indication it included other States. Not just Montana. An excerpt from the June 4, 1902 Butte Inter Mountain is below:


When Squads Return From Idaho and
Northwestern Montana and Report
Indians Will Pull Down Their Houses
and Hit the Trail for New Homes
Far From the Slaughterhouse.


Anaconda. June 5. Since receiving word from Washington that each of their number are entitled to 160 acres of land somewhere in this vast country, the band of nomad Chippewas encamped near the city of Anaconda have assumed an air of activity to which they have been strangers many long months.

The question which is now agitating the members of the band is where they shall settle down and till the soil, take up the white man's burden and lose trace of the noble aborigine.

The entire band is thoroughly imbued with a desire to get away from their present quarters and already Chief Rocky Boy has dispatched runners to look over various sections where they are to be allowed to live.

No Suke, a half breed Chippewa, commonly known as "Jim" and who is a power in the band is strongly in favor of the band taking land in the vicinity of Tobacco plains, or along St. Mary's river in northwestern Montana.

The Best Place

This Indian is familiar with the greater portion of Idaho and Montana and of all the country open for them to settle in he considers that the most favorable.

However, there is some land in Idaho that some favor and Indians are now absent looking over both strips. When they return and report on the lands they have seen the Chippewas will decide where they want to go and will lose no time in striking their tepees and hitting the trail. This will be good news to the residents of Anaconda and vicinity and especially to the ranchers living below in the Deer Lodge valley.

To these ranchers the Indians have proved a continual source of annoyance because of their polluting the waters of the creek with camp offal and the consequent danger of disease.

From what i know, chief Rocky Boy never moved further north than a lake named St. Mary. It could be St. Mary Lake at Blackfeet Reservation near Babb or the St. Mary Lake at Jocko Reservation or Flathead Reservation. My guess would be Jocko Reservation or Swan Valley. In 1904, he was supposedly set aside land within Jocko Reservation. If you track his movements they are directly within Blackfeet Reservation. The land areas with the numbers 398 and 399 on Indian land cession maps. St. Mary's River is located in the northwestern part of Blackfeet Reservation or where chief Rocky Boy returned to his native Montana in June of 1885. Tobacco Plains is located near Eureka, Montana. In Idaho, chief Rocky Boy possibly favored the mountainous northern part of Coeur d'Alene Reservation.

Chief Rocky Boy also knew that the treaties of December 0, 1871 and November 8, 1873 were invalid or fraudulent. It takes two parties to sign a treaty. Since those treaties are like the July 5, 1873 Treaty or extremely corrupt, he knew the land yet belonged to the Ojibway Nation. And the July 16, 1855 Treaty is also corrupt. They made a mistake by including a Reserve in Bitterroot Valley. They agreed to cede land north of Bitterroot Valley or where Mission Valley and Flathead Valley are, for land to the south. They tried early on to force them to leave Bitterroot Valley and the Missoula region yet it was very difficult. Chief Arlee accepted money and moved north to where Jocko Reservation is located in 1872. It would take nearly another 20 years to force the remaining Indians living in Bitterroot Valley, to move north to Mission Valley. They were forced to leave by threats of the use of violence.

Chief Rocky Boy sent numerous Ojibway scouts (the were really Ojibway settlers) to many locations in the northwest to merge with Indians living in northwestern Montana, northern Idaho and northeastern Washington. That land area in Montana, Idaho and Washington was never ceded. According to treaty text, the United States took the land without signing treaty. Chief Rocky Boy was aware of it. Many Indians continued to live throughout that entire area. Chief Rocky Boy commenced to move from the Anaconda and Butte region in the summer of 1902. Many of his other subjects were forced to board train box cars to relocate to far off locations. Those who agreed that is. Many continued to live in southwestern Montana, even after chief Rocky Boy moved north to the region south of Sun River, especially Blackfoot Valley; along Deerborn River; the mountains between Sun River Canyon and Swan Valley; the southern part of Swan Valley (south of Holland Lake); the Bears Paw Mountains (St. Peters Mission was located there); and the region between Sun River Canyon and Great Falls. Many Indians were already living throughout the region. Below is an excerpt about chief Rocky Boy's trek north (there is also evidence chief Rocky Boy sent some of his subjects west to Washington State) from the August 1, 1902 Kalispell Bee:

Wandering Chippewa Indians Who
Are Looking for a Grub Stake.
Who Helps the Red Men — Chief
Stony Boy Once Killed the Buffalo.
He Now Wants to Farm for Him
self and P e o p le.

Stony Boy, chief of the Chippewas, an old Indian with a bronzed and weather beaten face that showed the marks of hardships and privations without number, arrived in Helena today in search of “Mr. Washington,” who was in the habit, he had heard, of assisting destitute red men, says the Herald.

Stony Boy, accompanied by an interpreter, Henry Peppo, called on United States District Attorney Carl Rasch today and explained his mission. He said he and his people, as appeared from various documents he produced, were in search of farms, and that they desired to secure grub on which to make the march to the promised land.

“Mr. Washington,” said Chief Stony Boy, “he makes the laws and he helps the Indians, and we want him to give us grub until we find our land.”

With that speech, given with some difficulty through the interpreter, a quarter breed Indian and French Canadian, who himself spoke English with some difficulty, Chief Stony Boy produced a number of papers which he exhibited to the district attorney.

One was a letter signed by John W. James, an Anaconda lawyer, who wrote:

“The bearer is a homeless, honest Chippewa Indian by the name, of Stony Boy, who is looking for a piece of land on which to locate and take up under the laws in relation to Indian homesteads. He will not harm anyone nor anyone’s property. His only desire is to be unmolested.”

Henry, the interpreter stated that Chief Stony Boy and his people, consisting of 12 lodges, had passed the winter and spring in the neighborhood of Butte and Anaconda, and that they were now on their way to Northern Montana, where they hoped to take up lands and find homes for themselves. They had not selected any lands, but hoped to find a home in the St. Mary’s lake country, to which place they were now bound. He said that they could not proceed without grub, and that they had come to Helena thinking that the government would furnish them enough to take them to their destination and supply them until they could get their farms established. The Indians, with whom he lived, were camped seven or eight miles west of Helena.

Among Chief Stony Boy’s letters was one from the acting commissioner of the general land office, explaining the status of Indians not connected with tribes, in relation to taking up lands. The acting commissioner stated that such Indians could either take up lands under the homestead law as ordinary citizens, or might be allotted lands as Indians. Referring to the allotment of lands, the acting commissioner wrote:

“Indians applying for allotments could be allowed to enter unsurveyed lands of the United States—the lands so entered to be subject to adjustment of the public survey when extended over them. Further, under this section they would be entitled to 180 acres of agricultural land, or double this if the lands are available only for grazing purposes, while under the homestead law, white and Indian citizens are entitled to but a quarter section of land.”

It was some time before District Attorney Rasch could explain to Chief Stony Boy and his companion that “Mr. Washington” did not grub-stake his Indians. The district attorney told them that they would be compelled to depend upon some other source for their supplies. The old chief was keenly disappointed, but he did not express his views before the district attorney. After he had left Mr. Rasch's office, Stony Boy had a word to say.

“Mr. Washington,” he said to his interpreter, “don’t care for Indian. Let the Indian starve; kill off the buffalo, and then give him nothing but land. We had all the land once.”

"This Indian was a big chief once,” said Henry, speaking of Stony Boy. His father was born in Minnesota and was a chief there, but he was born in this state, up north, where he has lived for more than thirty years. He used to kill many buffalo. In those days the Indians had plenty to eat and were happy. Now they don't have anything and some of the children have never seen a buffalo.”

“And what did you used to do?” Henry was asked.

“I have lived always with the Indians—I am an Indian,” he replied. “I killed plenty of buffalo many years ago."

With Chief Stony Boy in Helena, was his son, Posse-e-teo, and a Cree Indian called Ok-sin.

Henry said today that Chief Stony Boy and his people would move on up north without provisions, living as best they could.

If you read the article carefully you then noticed it was written that chief Rocky Boy and his 12 lodges or 60 to 80 subjects, were camped 7 or 8 miles west of Helena. Remember that because in late 1909 or seven years later, chief Rocky Boy was camped at the same location waiting to be transported by train boxcars to Blackfeet Reservation. What does that tell you? Historians are quick to write that chief Rocky Boy was from Wisconsin. However, there are two accounts from Indians who tell of chief Rocky Boy being born in Montana. One is a location between Anaconda and Butte, while the other is the location north of Helena. Great Falls or somewhere near Great Falls. So if chief Rocky Boy wasn't from Crow-Northern Cheyenne Reservation, he was from near Great Falls and the events of 1890-1891 and 1898-1899 at Crow Reservation, were phony or really happened near Great Falls.

American leaders knew what was going on. It was reported in the press that a large group of Crees (they are really Ojibway's) were commencing an exodus west to Washington. An indication chief Rocky Boy was leading 1,000s of his subjects north and west, for new lands. Below is an excerpt from the Tuesday January 6, 1903 Kalispell Bee:

Newspapers of Washington Worried
Over the Cree Exodus.
Action of Collector Webster Has
Caused Commotion —Other Collec-
tors Are Preparing to Follow in His

The movement of C. M. Webster
collector of customs for Montana and
Idaho, in endeavoring to force the
renegade Canadian Crees to leave
Montana by seizing their horses for
duty, is causing considerable excitement
on the coast, and the newspapers
of Washington are full of it.
They profess to fear that if Collector
Webster is successful, the Indians
will only move west into Washington,
and take up their quarters there
and the collector of that state is advised
to get ready to follow in the
footsteps of Mr. Webster. The Post-
Intelligencer of current date contains
a story of the action of Mr. Webster,
together with a full history of the
Crees, and advice to the collector at
Washington. The same paper has
also an interview with Robert Reece,
who says he was formerly a deputy
collector of customs at Jennings,
and his story is interesting as being
a fairly accurate statement of the

Some time ago there was a petition
signed by residents of all the northern
Montana counties sent to the department.
asking for some relief for the
filthy, wandering Crees. Collector
Charles M. Webster concluded
that he would seize their mounts if
they were not out of the country
within a certain time. A notice will
be sent to their chief Little Bear, to
this effect, and in all probability they
will be given till spring to comply
with its provisions.

"The Crees have a large number
of horses, some of which they have
raised in the northwest and some of
which they have brought with them
from Canada. This is all they have,
and with these gone they would lie
helpless. Therefore, it is believed
that when the order is issued they
will be forced to comply with it, or
more from Montana, at least.

"Six years ago, after the depart-
ment had been petitioned many
times by the citizens of Montana to
remove the Crees, congress made an
appropriation for their deportation.
The Tenth cavalry was then stationed
at Fort Assinniboine, and was detailed
for the duty. For weeks companies
of this regiment were engaged
in herding them from all parts of the
state and taking them to Great Falls,
where they were kept in camp until
all had been secured, and then several
thousand of them were placed aboard
the train and delivered at the Canadian
boundary to the mounted police.
They were escorted to a new reservation
set apart for them on the
banks of the Saskatchewan, and given
every chance to make a living.
but they are of the class of Indians
that will not work, and soon their
leader, Little Bear, came back, to be
followed in a short time by hundreds
of his tribe.

“He told the story that the Cana-
dian government had not done as it
agreed and that his people were
starving. He brought back samples
of flour, which he said was given to
them as rations and which was not fit
to eat.

"The United States authorities took
the matter up with the authorities at
Ottawa and it was learned that Little
Bear lied: that he had been treated
well, but refused to work himself or
encourage his followers to do so.

Matters dragged on and several
means have been tried to get rid of
them, but each time they employ a
lawyer, with some of their horses as
his pay, and they are retained. Their
claim is that they have been residents
of the United States since
1886; that their children have been
born here and, therefore, they are
citizens of this country. The government
has never so recognized them,
and this time a determined effort
will be made to get rid of them.

"There are in all probability 3,000
Crees in the northwest. About 2,000
of them are in Montana. 500 in eastern
Washington, and the balance
scattered over the northwestern
states. They are the filthiest lot of
Indians on earth. They live from the
garbage barrels of the cities about
which they loiter and are at all times
diseased. They have spread more
sickness among the whites than any
other class of people in the United

“ Prior to the Riel rebellion, in
1885 and the spring of 1886, the
Crees lived in Canada. Their home
was along the line of the present
Canadian Pacific branch from Regina
to Prince Albert. They were
the first to take up arms against the
Canadian government, and under
Louis Riel they were the only murderous
lot of cutthroats during the
trouble. Their murders were numerous.
and in them their women took
an active part. Little Bear is credited
with having put to death during that time
at least 100 white women, children and men.

“When the rebellion was over and
Louis Riel and his lieutenant, Ga
briel, fled the country, with a price
their heads, the Crees under Lit-
tie Bear, rode for days in a circuit-
ous route and crossed into Montana.
The Canadian government set a price
on Little Bear’s head. When Riel
was captured and hanged, the Canadian
agents were active in the United
States trying to locate Little Bear.
but he managed to keep out of sight,
and not until years afterward was
he located.

"At the time of the deportation of
the band the United States authori-
ties arranged with the Canadian gov-
eminent for a pardon for Little Bear.
so that, under the circumstances,
when he was delivered across the
boundary line would not be hanged,
which he feared very much. However,
on his arrival at Lethbridge he
was arrested and taken to Regina,
where Riel was hanged, and held
there for some time. Later, he was
released on a promise that he would
go to the Cree reservation, on the
banks of the Saskatchewan, and re-
main there and encourage his follow-
ers to do likewise. In an effort to re-
tain the tribe the Canadian govern-
ment did all in its power, but the few
years they had been in this country
convinced the Crees that it was bet-
ter than their native land, and, there-
fore. they returned.

“At one time the United States
government offered Little Bear a
reservation in Montana if he would
settle on it and have his tribe earn
their own living. His reply was that
his people had always been accustomed
to roam about at will and it
would be impossible to settle them.
Later on he applied to the government
for the same relief that had
been offered, but at that time the
land which it was intended should
be theirs was devoted to other purposes
and the request was refused.
" It is estimated that Montana has
spent within the past ten years $500,-
000 in stamping out disease and
other things attributable to the Crees.
This is not the cause of complaint
so much as is the fact that so long
as they are allowed to remain in the
state they will be a burden.

"They are not decreasing in numbers
at all, but rather increasing.
There is a class of white men inter marrying
among them and living
their life of filth and profligacy. Then
annually there are members of other
worthless tribes who link their for-
tunes with the Crees, and therefore
the condition is yearly growing

If it should be that they come to
Washington, after being driven from
Montana, similar action on the part
of the customs authorities here will
keep them moving, for they will not
part with their horses. However, it
is more than probable they will fight
the action of Collector Webster, and
the plan therefore will he difficult of
execution, it will he tried, how-

The year 1902 was important to chief Rocky Boy and his subjects. They were allowed to Relocate to other Reservations in Canada and the United States, especially to Arizona and California Reservations. Many reached Washington State and the whites there were very upset. All the lies. Where did they get the information about Little Bear? We know about chief Rocky Boy. He set out in the summer of 1902 to colonize new lands. Actually they were moving to lands already inhabited by Ojibway's and other tribes. The United States wanted the Ojibway People out of Montana. Read the Seven Fires Prophecy. They, the Washington reporters, were very hostile after learning chief Rocky Boy was sending many of his subjects to Washington. Extremely hostile. The white casulties of the 1885 Northwest Rebellion were 190 killed and wounded. Only about 49 were killed. Louis Riel was a white troublemaker. He sided with the whites and was instrumental in having the Province of Manitoba created and Red River Colony liberated. He then set out to establish other white colonies in Montana and Saskatchewan. He helped start the 1885 war. It was the Saulteaux Ojibway's who fought that war. Chief Rocky Boy was being lied to by American and Canadian leaders. He probably knew earlier on about it.


He spoke of reaching the St. Mary's Lake country. At Jocko Reservation (aka Flathead Reservation) there is a small lake named St. Mary's Lake. However, chief Rocky Boy knew about the October 17, 1855 Treaty and the correct boundaries of Blackfeet Reservation. It deals with the Continental Divide or Main Divide of the Rocky Mountains which is the Rocky Mountain Trench. It is Blackfeet Reservations western boundary. Determining where the Rocky Mountain Trench is difficult. It's probably Columbia River. Thus, the reason for the Ojibway Exodus to Washington in 1902 and 1903. In 1904, chief Rocky Boy and his subjects were granted a Reservation within Flathead Reservation. They will deny it yet we know it was in fact set aside for chief Rocky Boy. Senator Gibson, who was from Great Falls, helped chief Rocky Boy receive the Reservation. However, chief Rocky Boy did not comprehend. He knew the western boundary of Blackfeet Reservation extended to the Rocky Mountain Trench. Below is an excerpt from the January 6, 1904 River Press:

Homes for Rocky Boy's Band.

A recent Washington dispatch says Senator Gibson has introduced the following bill, which has been referred to the committee on Indian affairs:

"Be it enacted by the senate and house of representatives of the United States of America in congress assembled, that the secretary of the interior be, and he is hereby authorized and directed, with the consent of the Indians of the Jocko (Flathead) reservation. in the state of Montana, to be obtained in the usual manner, to set aside a tract of land in compact form within the boundaries of said reservation, sufficient in area to give not to exceed 40 acres each of arable land to such members, including men, women and children, of the migratory band of Indians now roaming in said state, and known as Rocky Boy's band, as shall, upon investigation, be satisfactorily shown to have been born in the United States, and who may desire to settle permanently upon said reservation: and there is hereby appropriated out of any money in the treasury not to exceed the sum of $8,800, or so much thereof as may be necessary, to pay the Indians of Flathead reservation at the rate of per acre for thelands relinquished and set apart for said migratory Indians: and a further sum of $10,000 to be expended in assisting said Indians iu making homes for themselves on said reservation, in all $18,800 to be immediately available."

Notice how there are two names for Flathead Reservation. The correct one may be Flathead yet Jocko needs further research. Chief Arlee was the first Nez Perce Ojibway chief to lead Nez Perce Ojibways to Jocko Reservation. That be the southern part of Flathead Reservation where Arlee, Montana is located. Today, Flathead Reservation does not recognize the Nez Perce Ojibway's as being one of the native tribes of Flathead Reservation. They only recognize the Salish (the Flathead Tribes) and Kootenai. Nez Perce people living at Flathead Reservation, don't qualify for Reservation benefits. We know chief Arlee accepted payments to move to Jocko Reservation. Chief Arlee told the American's that chief Charlot or Charlo, agreed with the Garfield 1872 Agreement. The United States then named chief Arlee the chief of the Salish or Flathead Tribes from Bitterroot Valley (it's a part of Blackfeet Reservation and was why the 1872 Garfield Agreement was propsed). He then moved them to Jocko Reservation which is the southern part of Flathead Reservation. You also noticed that the subjects of chief Rocky Boy were granted a compact form Reservation. Of course, compact means together which means they did set aside a Reservation for chief Rocky Boy and his subjects. They lied afterwards. It's located in the eastern part of Flathead Reservation. That's a guess. The region between MacDonald Lake and Turtle Lake. The Mission Mountain Foothills are yet covered by a forest.


In 1907, the United States prepared to break treaty. In southwest Montana, 1,000s of chief Rocky Boy's subjects continued to live in their own villages. In the region between Jocko Reservation and Great Falls, lived 1,000s more of chief Rocky Boy's subjects. The United States wanted the Ojibway People out of Montana and Blackfeet Reservation eradicated. That be the Blackfeet Reservation south of Sun River and west of Musselshell River which included all of southwest Montana. All the promises reached between 1902 and 1908, were not honored by the American Government.

Both Ojibwa and Ojibway may mean the same to you yet both have different meanings. Ojibwa is derived from the Ojibway word for before which is Chi-Bwa. That is the origins for both Chippewa and Ojibwa. It means The First People or The Original People. Ojibway has a totally different meaning. It's derived from the Ojibway word for Truth which is De-bwe-win. They used "bwe" along with O-ji, to describe themselves as The People of Truth. It was their way of letting whites know that they, the Ojibway's, honored agreements or were true to their word. In late 1907 or early 1908, a farmer at Jocko Reservation warned chief Rocky Boy about what the United States was going to do.

In 1907, leaders of Silver Bow County told the Ojibway's and other tribes living in that region, to leave or they would be arrested. Leaders of Fergus County also told the Ojibway's to leave Fergus County which is the eastern part of Blackfeet Reservation. Many left for Fort Hall Reservation in southeast Idaho. Many others were loaded onto train box cars and Relocated to the Navajo Reservation land additions of 1907 and 1908. In 1906, a large group of supposed Utes (they were really Ojibway's) were captured in southeast Montana near Crow-Northern Cheyenne Reservation. They were being forced to leave either Crow-Northern Cheyenne Reservation or Blackfeet Reservation. They stopped in northeast Wyoming than turned around and went back to Montana. After being stopped or captured, they agreed to Relocate to the Cheyenne River-Standing Rock Reservation of South Dakota, where they were set aside a Reservation.

In early 1908, chief Rocky Boy became upset after learning that most of St. Peters Mission was burned down. It was located in the Bears Paw Mountains which are about 30 miles southwest of Great Falls. He knew there would be more trouble. In October of 1908, the Swan Valley Massacre happened near Flathead Reservation. As mentioned, in early 1908, a farmer at Flathead Reservation warned chief Rocky Boy about what the whites were going to do. On October 18, 1908 Swan Valley Massacre happened near Holland Lake which is almost the northern boundary of Blackfeet Reservation. After the massacre, chief Rocky Boy knew he had to gather his subjects together for forced Relocations. Something is not right. Remember i wrote that chief Rocky Boy and his subjects were camped 7 or 8 miles west of Helena in 1902? It deals with that. They are covering up a Reservation in Montana they don't want you knowing about. It deals with Fort Shaw Industrial Indian School (it was closed in 1910) which had over 300 students in 1909, Swan Valley and the Helena and Great Falls regions. What followed were major Relocations. Below is an xecerpt from a Friday October 22, 1909 The Search Light Newspaper:

Reds Are in Paricularly Harras-
ed Condition-Are Without
Funds and in Reality at
Starvation Point.

Some of the members of the Chippewa Indian tribe are having trouble with their chief, Rocky Boy, and incidently with the county authorities. The Chippewa tribe for several months, in fact since last winter, have been camped near Birdseye, but recently the feed for their horses grew scarce in that vicinity, and they decided to move, and, according to the story told by some of them, at the suggestion of Rocky Boy. they moved to Colorado gulch. The residents in that vicinity did not relish the idea of having them there and complained to the authorities, who notified the Indians that they would have to move away. Some of the more progressive members of the tribe said that they had started to leave Helena, but had been told by Rocky Boy that if they did he would get out the government troops, and would compel them to return. These Indians say that Rocky Boy has no jurisdiction over them, so far as they are personally concerned, but they have heretofore believed that he had the power to invoke aid of the government forces. This morning they were told that this was a mistake and that they could leave Helena at any time in peace. These Indians own several teams and believe that if they could get to the Belknap Indian reservation they could obtain work and accumulate suflicient money and clothing to tide them over the winter. They are the more industrious members of the tribe and are willing and anxious to work.

Chief Rocky Boy was arraigned in the justice court this afternoon, and told not to interfere with the other members of the tribe when they wanted to leave the city. This he promised to do. The Indians were told not to leave the city until Saturday, pending some arrangements which may be made between now and that time by the government to care for them.

The Indians at the present time are in a particularly harassed condition. Their horses recently became afflicted with loco and some of them are unfit for even herding. The Indians are without funds, food or clothing, and are in reality starving. For some time the Indians have been gathering the offal from the slaughter houses, and it is said that when this supply was small they even resorted to kiiling their horses and eating the flesh.

Montana Record.


As you can tell by the news article, there was great unrest. They were terrified because they knew they were going to be Deported. Many wanted to avoid the Deportations. The thought of boarding train boxcars was revolting to them. It was a major Deportation involving 1,000s of chief Rocky Boy's subjects. They were Deported to many Reservations including to Canada. They had to share the same train cars. Those train cars were for cattle and supplies or boxcars. They were not for people. Chief Rocky Boy moved many of them to Colorado gulch which is 7 or 8 miles west of Helena or the same location written in the 1902 article. Only difference, was in 1902 they used their horses to travel. They were content. It was very different in 1909. They were Deported using trains. That enraged chief Rocky Boy. He had to go to court because he refused to use trains to Relocate. After all, he did move away from Birdseye. He did so for a reason and was arrested and had to go to court. Chief Rocky Boy was the leader who wanted to use horses to reach Fort Belknap Reservation. Many of them were Relocated to the Cheyenne River and Standing Rock Reservation which was over 400 miles away. It took days to get there. Many were Deported to Arizona and Florida. They were enraged. So the 1902 and 1909 events were similar yet quite different. In 1902, they were moving to the region between Great Falls, Helena and Jocko eservation. In 1909, they were being Deported away from that location. It is Colorado gulch that is the center of this conspiracy. It commenced in early 1908, when the farmer at Flathead Reservation warned chief Rocky Boy about what the United States was going to do. Chief Rocky Boy probably rejected the Relocations. Thus, the reason for the October 1908 Swan Valley Massacre. Afterwards, he had no choice but to avoid violence. What followed was revolting because the United States refused to honor agreements or they lied. Below is an excerpt from a June 23, 1910 newspaper article:

Home at Last For Rocky Boy and His

Great Falls.-Following a struggle of 20 years for recognition from the United States government, the trials and tribulations of Rocky Boy and his rapidly thinning band are at an end, and. a permanent home is finally to be the reward of the years of suffering endured by the members of this noted band of outcast Indians.

The announcement that will bring joy and gladness to the hearts of Rocky Boy and his faithful followers was received in Great Falls by John Armstrong, United States allotting agent of the Indian service, from the department officials at the national capital. According to the arrangements as given out, Rocky Boy and each member of his band is to receive an allotment of 80 acres, 20 miles north of the Blackfoot agency on the reservation at the forks of the St. Mary and Milk rivers. They are to be under the supervision of Superintendent Churchill, of the Blackfoot reservation.

Overlooked and forgotten when the Chippewa tribe, in Wisconsin, was assigned its reservations nearly a score of years ago. Rocky Boy and his original band of 150 red men have since been tramps upon the face of the earth. All efforts to secure aid from Uncle Sam have failed and the government has treated the half-starved band in a most shameful manner. In 1909 a million acres of land, which previous administrations had reserved for Rocky Boy's band, were restored to the public domain by Secretary of the Interior Ballinger in response to a petition signed by President L. W. Hill, of the Great Northern, Senator Clapp, of Minnesota, and a number of Montana citizens. Last winter Rocky Boy went to Helena and appealed to Judge Hunt for aid. The government later sent the Indians a mere bagful for rations. Of late they have been quartered on the Blackfeet reservation.

So the forks of the St. Mary and Milk Rivers (it's located 6.5 miles northeast of Babb) is where the boundaries are. The fork of the Milk River is 20 miles north of Browning. The boundary follows the fork of Milk River to Babb then to the forks of the St. Mary and Milk Rivers. It then follows a line west to the mountains then north to the Canada border. It then follows the boundary to the western boundary of Glacier County. It then follows the western boundary of Glacier County to the northern boundary of Pondera County. It then follows the western boundary of Pondera County to Crescent Cliff. It then follows a line northeast to Goat Mountain. It then follows a line east then northeast to the southwestern boundary of Blackfeet Reservation. It then follows the southern boundary of Blackfeet Reservation to the east shores of Alkali Lake. Then in an eradict line following the boundaries of farms, it reaches a location about 4.75 miles directly north of Browning. It then follows a line to the fork of Milk River which is 20 miles north of Browning. The land cession of 1895 involved the farm land in Blackfeet Reservations east and northern portions. Glacier National Park was never ceded. The current boundaries of Blackfeet Reservation are probably correct, excepting the western boundaries of Glacier and Pondera Counties which are the true western boundaries of Blackfeet Reservation. From what i know, the 1895 land cession was a lease. The land was suppose to be returned after 99 years. The first boundary i described is probably the Reservation set aside for chief Rocky Boy in 1909. It covers around 1800 sq. mi.

Not long after the June 23, 1910 news article appeared, chief Rocky Boy and his brother Pennato, learned they had been lied to. In December of 1910, chief Pennato commenced an exodus off the Reservation. Those Indians living in the area between Babb and St. Mary to the western boundary of Glacier County, were forced to relocate to the region between Browning and Heart Butte. In 1911, Superintendent McFatridge of Blackfeet Reservation, forced a large number of chief Rocky Boy's subjects to leave the Reservation.

Chief Rocky Boy was also set aside 60 townships or almost 1,400,000 acres of land in Valley County, Montana in 1909. After the Swan Valley Massacre, which happened in October of 1908, chief Rocky Boy had to gather his subjects up for relocations. One was to Blackfeet Reservation as you already know. Another was to Valley County, Montana. The one to Valley County, Montana is the most corrupt. In 1908, Frank Churchill was sent to Garrison, Montana to negotiate with chief Rocky Boy. They reached agreements. Churchill requested that all of Valley County, Montana be withdrawn from white settlement and a new Chippewa Reservation for chief Rocky Boy and his subjects, be set aside. His requests were granted by the United States government. A 1.4 million acre Reservation was set aside north? and east? of Fort Peck Reservation for chief Rocky Boy and his subjects. The ? represent a discrepancy. They meant south. The land additions to Blackfeet Reservation on April 13, 1875 had to be addressed. They have the land area numbers 622 and 623 on the map below. On July 13, 1880, the land area with the number 622 was ceded. The land area with the number 623 is the correct Fort Peck Reservation. It, the land area number 623, was never ceded. They'll claim it was ceded on May 1, 1888 yet that is a lie. What land was ceded on May 1, 1888, considering Fort Peck Reservation, was the land area with the number 565. It's another of chief Rocky Boy's Reservations. It includes the old Fort Buford Military Reservation. However, the United States lied again. Below is an excerpt from the 1910 Pacific Monthly:

Rocky Boy Indian Reservation Open to

March 1 is the date set for the opening to settlement of the Rocky Boy Indian Reservation, of 1,400,000 acres of land, located in Valley County, Eastern Montana, according to announcement. The lands will be open to settlement at this date, and for entry at the United States Land Office at Glasgow on March 31. This plan will do away with the customary lottery method of opening to entry the large Indian reservations, since there is no required registry, o drawing. The lands will simply be opened to entry and settlement under the regular land rules. The tract is reported tributary to the towns of Culbertson and Bainville on the Great Northern Railway.


It's obvious a large Reservation was set aside adjacent to Fort Peck Reservation (it's really Fort Peck Reservation) for chief Rocky Boy and his subjects in 1909. They didn't wait long to lie. After chief Pennato died on May 15, 1912, chief Rocky Boy commenced preparations for an exodus off Blackfeet Reservation. He used horses. He was not going by train. In August of 1913, chief Rocky Boy reached Great Falls and settled at an ancient Ojibway village where West Bank Park is. He demanded a Reservation and received it. By 1914, chief Rocky Boy was well established near Great Falls with 700 of his subjects. As you can tell, he was very defiant. Below is an excerpt from the Friday July 3, 1914 Cut Bank Pioneer Press:

Visit Copper Town

Anaconda, June 29.—Chief Rocky Boy of the Chippewas is in the city with a retinue of his tribe, revisiting scenes of one of his favorite camping places, and incidentally gathering spare silver for the support of his dependents. He is accompanied by Cas. Reid and Standing Rock braves, will speak intelligently and make known their wants by presenting a subscription list, which has now been fairly well patronized and was started more" than a year ago in Great Falls.

The headquarters of the wandering tribe is now at Great Falls, though they still have hopes of getting an allotment of land on the grounds of old Fort Assinniboine.

Rocky Boy has a few more wrinkles since he left the Deer Lodge valley four or five years ago, but othewise shows no trace of old age, or of the hardships he has experienced in his travels, and they have been many.

He claims to have 700 people in his camp now. His first call in the city was made on his old time friend Bob Greig, was recalled the time he painted up the tribe in oil paints for the Fourth of July celebration parade. That incident was a serious one for Greig until he discovered what had happened and acted as medicine man with the turpentine to wash it off.

The history of Rocky Boy and his tribe is a familiar one and the problem is unsettled by the bureau of Indian affairs. The allotment made on the Blackfoot reservation was protested by settlers, who found the nomads undesirable neighbors, and they are still without a location that they can call home.

Notice how they wrote that the allotment on Blackfeet Reservation was protested by settlers? There were no white settlers in Rocky Boy's Reservation within Blackfeet Reservation. There were a few whites near Lake Sherburne yet they are ignoring the truth. In 1910, the United States officially made Glacier National Park a National Park. The Blackfeet did not cede that part of their Reservation in 1895. It remains a part of Blackfeet Reservation. Very few people live in the region where chief Rocky Boy was set aside his Reservation in 1909 or 1902. That's because of the exodus and forced relocation to the region between Browning and Heart Butte and off Reservation. Chief Rocky Boy's subjects were content after settling there and enraged after removed.

So the last we here from chief Rocky Boy is while he was in Great Falls. He had nothing to do with Rocky Boy's Reservation which is really Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation. They reduced the size of Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation two or three times. The last was in 1916. They reduced Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation to 56,000 acres and changed the name of it to Rocky Boy's Reservation. They also forced 100s of Ojibway's off the Reservation. Most moved to Great Falls.